Collaborative Musical Production and Identity: The Case of Milton Nascimento and the Clube da Esquina
Holly Holmes, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, USA
The Clube da Esquina [Corner Club] is a collective of popular musicians and lyricists led by Brazilian performer-composer Milton Nascimento that first found success in the early 1970s. Nascimento has released more than 30 albums and continues to tour extensively throughout Brazil and the world, but to hear his music of the 1970s as that of the solidification of an audacious solo career—while perhaps accurate in commercial terms—is a misunderstanding of how the music was created and produced. This work seeks to explore the unique nature of collaboration employed by the members of the Clube da Esquina that led to them being understood as not only a musical collective, but a distinct “sound” or approach to MPB (música popular brasileira, or Brazilian popular music). In exploring the nature of collaboration, this research also explores its limits. Among the group’s groundbreaking achievements was the flexible sharing of performing roles—in which a single musician might perform piano, bass, drums, percussion, lead guitar, or lead vocal depending on the needs of the track—and lyrical duties within the collective. Though the Clube da Esquina is defined by these negotiations of artistic, commercial, and aesthetic production, their trajectory was also profoundly shaped by limits, such as divergent goals and critical reception.
ABSTRACT: In 2004 US Time magazine named Glasgow as Europe’s capital of rock music and likened it to Detroit in its Motown heyday (Porter, 2004). In August 2008 the city was named UNESCO City of Music and the application dossier submitted in support of this title notes the importance of rock and pop for the city’s musical reputation. Given Glasgow’s recent accolades, and the number of critically and commercially successful rock/pop artists to emerge from the city over the last thirty years, there has been little research into the ways in which Glasgow has maintained such a vibrant and productive popular music scene.
Portland, Oregon is a city renowned for its countercultural preference of cottage industry over multi-nationals, despite living in the shadow of Nike, Intel and Adidas. In terms of the music industries the city is pinpointed by a handful of independent labels and the various self-releasing internet platforms available. Music-making is also supported by a strong network of not-for-profit organisations providing opportunities to play, funding for exploratory projects and start-up capital for independent music industries such as record labels and studios.
John Street, Dave Laing & Simone Schroff, University of East Anglia
CREATe Panel on ‘Music & Copyright’
ABSTRACT: The recently adopted European Directive on collective management organisations and online crossborder music licensing is the first pan-European legislation to regulate the activities of national authors’ societies, the voluntary bodies that collect royalties from broadcasters, online services and promoters, and distribute the money to songwriters and publishers. It also marks the end of an era when these societies enjoyed national monopolies on such activities by granting blanket licences, and were able to give additional support to music making in even the smallest European countries.
At the root of copyright’s legislative reach, and practical effects, is the matter of ‘copying’ itself – often referring to what may legitimately (morally or legally) be done with an apparently completed piece. Yet making music, and acquiring the skills to do so, is shot through with acts of copying, from straightforwardly learning a basic riff to the network of socially inflected influences in composition and multifarious technological means of manipulation, particularly in popular music, where criteria for entry to the field are relatively lightly codified. Likewise, as well disrupting longstanding distribution methods, digital technology has blurred the relationship between production, consumption and the ‘finished product’.
Musicians are central to an industry rhetoric in support of copyright protection that often relies upon conceptions of discrete works established in a pre-digital era. This paper explores popular musical practices themselves in the face of a rapidly evolving palette of creative possibilities. How do musicians regard digital techniques—like sampling—and their outputs against other long established forms of copying? At what point do they consider the implications of copyright for their practice?
This paper scrutinizes the role of copyright in the commercial decision-making of Popular Music creators. UK copyright law confers an exclusive ‘basket of rights’ on musical creators. Theoretically at least, this privileges creators as the key decision makers in copyright transactions. However, scholars have questioned whether most creators wield meaningful influence in these negotiations. Instead, they have argued that creators find themselves in extremely weak bargaining positions largely due to the ‘take it or leave it’ terms offered by commercial investors.
Perhaps as a consequence of these critiques, the nuance in the ‘lived experience’ of creators’ commercial decisions has been largely overlooked in academic research. Drawing on data gathered from in-depth interviews with contemporary creators and investors, this paper probes the complex interplay between these key stakeholders.
[with apologies to Martin for missing the start of his session]
From the late 1920s until the late 1980s the amount of records the BBC could play on its radio stations was severely limited by a system known as ‘needletime’. Officially this was an arrangement between the BBC and Phonographic Performance Limited (PPL), acting on behalf of the major record companies. However it was also subject to scrutiny and intense lobbying by the Musicians Union (MU) which was dedicated to restricting the amount of records played on the radio as part of its determined campaign to ‘keep music live’. Based on a series of previously unseen documents, this paper examines the history of the needletime agreements, their scope and the controversies which emerged between the contending parties. It suggests that an understanding of the needletime agreements sheds further light on the historically complex nature of the UK’s music industries and on the interactions between those representing music makers, music publishers and music users.