Authenticity and the role of live musicians in hip hop production #arpOslo2014

Alex Stevenson, Leeds Metropolitan University

Author keywords:      ­Hip hop, Authenticity, Live, Sampling

EMU SP12/1200
EMU SP12/1200

Authenticity and the role of live musicians in hip hop production

ABSTRACT: Despite hip hop music’s origins as a live performance-based art form, utilising turntables and sound systems, the incorporation of digital sampling technologies gave rise to a sample-based aesthetic within hip hop production which traditionally rejected the use of live musicians. In his ethnographical study of hip hop production, Schloss goes as far as stating that as a hip hop producer ‘…it is the lack of samples – the use of live instrumentation – that must be justified’ (Schloss, 2004, p.67).

This sample-based aesthetic is strongly linked to the notion of authenticity within hip hop production (Schloss, 2004; Williams, 2010), however use of live musicians has been evident throughout the history of hip hop; from live hip hop band The Roots , the use of session musicians to re-play samples in Dr. Dre’s Chronic 2001 (1999) to the self-sampling approach of Portishead’s self titled album (1997). More recently in the UK, the formation of bands such as Introducing Live whose debut project in 2009 was to recreate note for note the entirety of DJ Shadow’s exclusively sample-based album Endtroducing (1996) with a 10-piece live band and the Abstract Hip Hop Orchestra who, inspired by Miguel Atwood-Ferguson orchestral tribute to J-Dilla (2010), perform live versions of classic hip hop tracks with a 16 piece ensemble, demonstrate the integral role that live musicians can occupy within hip hop performances that were once the reserve of the DJ and MC.

IASPM 2014 – Intertextuality and Lineage in The Game’s “We Ain’t”

Justin Williams, University of Bristol

[Friday afternoon here in the music dept at University College Cork, and after an early start (most of us flew in this morning) the first paper wakes us all up with some solid classic gangsta rap.]

Justin’s paper focuses on “We Ain’t” by rapper The Game (prod. Eminem) as an example of intertextuality in Gangsta rap lineage. Useful quote (didn’t get the origin?) – “the artist starts by imposing a culture on himself and ends by imposing it on others”. Justin discusses lineage, both literal (e.g. Rock Family Trees) and cultural, and expands on the themes from his book ‘Rhymin’ and Stealin’ – https://www.press.umich.edu/3480627/rhymin_and_stealin.

We hear verse 1 and the first chorus of the song – video below.

The UK Sound: British Hip Hop Production Practice #arp13

Diggin’ in the crates

STEVENSON, ALEX (Leeds Metropolitan University)
The UK Sound: British Hip Hop Production Practice

[abstract only] The emergence of localised sub-genres of Hip Hop around the world has been well documented, however the genre of UK Hip Hop (or British Hip Hop) has been largely overlooked in scholarly research. Although largely an underground music scene with very limited commercial success, UK Hip Hop has been recognized as being pivotal in the development of the more commercially successful genres of Grime, Trip Hop and Drum’n’Bass. Existing research into UK Hip Hop has often been from a cultural or sociological perspective, and although there is existing research analysing the compositional approach of Turntablist groups within in UK, little research exists into the production processes of UK Hip Hop.

Whilst many UK Hip Hop producers acknowledge the influence of American producers in the development of their style of production, there is recognition of UK Hip Hop having its own unique sonic characteristics. This uniqueness has been attributed to the experimental nature of the genre, partly due to its underground status, and its incorporation of a wide range of other musical genres.

This paper aims to identify and explore the unique aspects of UK Hip Hop through analysis of the composition and production processes. Through the use of interviews with key UK Hip Hop producers, and the sonic analysis of key musical works, this research will focus on three key themes which impact on the production process; these are:

  • Access to and utilisation of technology

  • The influence of specific US Hip Hop producers

  • The integration of elements of other music genres