Sample replays… #arp #sampling

Sample replays and their implications for producers and listeners

Justin Morey, Leeds Beckett University

ABSTRACT: There is evidence that the cost of clearing the recording copyright of a sample (the master clearance) has risen significantly in the last 20 years (see, for example: McLeod and Di Cola, 2013; Morey, 2014), with one result being the increasing use of sample replay services, which create a sound-alike of a sample at a fraction of the price of clearing the original. A further recent development is that producers (hereafter sampling composers) whose records originally used cleared samples have found that on expiry of the term of clearance, record label demands to authorize an extension have become financially prohibitive, leading to a choice either to create a version with the sample replaced by a replay, or have the record disappear completely from streaming services and broadcast media.

Using qualitative data from practitioners involved in sampling, sample replay services, and sample clearance, this paper explores the implications of developments in the industrial management of copyright on the creative practice of sampling composers and the canon of sample-based music available to listeners, and considers issues of the aura and authenticity of an original recording in terms of sampling and sample replays.

Keywords: digital sampling; copyright; creative practice

[Read more…]

Service Models in Popular Music Production Education #arp #songwriting

Collective Creativity: A ‘Service’ Model of Contemporary Commercial Pop Music

  • Paul Thompson, Leeds Beckett University, UK
  • Phil Harding, Leeds Beckett University, UK

Keywords: Creativity, Pop Production, Songwriting

Thewantedifoundyou.jpgABSTRACT: A commercial pop music production is rarely the result of a single individual and pop music producers and songwriters are often part of a larger creative collective (Hennion, 1990) in creating a musical product. A team leader typically manages this group activity. That team leader requires an appropriate level of cultural, symbolic and economic capital (Bourdieu, 1984) so they can effectively evaluate the contributions of the rest of the team and guide the project towards commercial success (Thompson & Harding, 2017). This study explores the role of the team leader within the creative production workflow of pop songwriting and production since the 1990s and investigates the ways in which pop songwriting and production teams work within a creative system of pop-music making. Building upon previous studies in this area (Harding and Thompson 2017) the ‘Service Model’ flow system is illustrated with distinct linear stages that include the processes of pop songwriting, pop vocal recording, post vocal production and then mixing. However, within each of these production stages the ‘highly nonlinear dynamics’ (Capra and Luisi, 2014) of the creative system (Csikszentmihalyi; 1988, 1999) can be viewed in action as the team work together to make the pop record. Drawing upon a series of interviews and data gathered during a Practice Based Enquiry (PBE) conducted at Westerdals University in Oslo, this paper presents the pop music ‘Service Model’. Importantly, the model underlines the value of the collective (rather than individual) in the commercial pop songwriting and production process.

This is Phil and Paul’s third presentation about this project (related to Phil’s PhD) – and represents bringing the research up to date by talking about contemporary pop production. For background, you can read about last year’s paper and/or pick up Phil’s book PWL from the Factory Floor.

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Plagiarism: Musicology’s Proof of the Pudding #arp #iaspm

IMG_1391 2.jpgFranco Fabbri, University of Milan and Conservatorio ‘A.Boito’, Parma

Our opening keynote for the conference is the much-loved Franco Fabbri, a much-celebrated musician, educator and musicologist. I was particularly interested to hear this one, because Franco is talking about Forensic Musicology, and with a particular focus on Italian case law.

Here’s my live-blog of his hour-long talk, with YouTube examples where I could find them:

Plagiarism: Musicology’s Proof of the Pudding

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All the conferences, all the time #arp #iaspm #musicresearch

I’m in Huddersfield!

This is, for the first time, a mashup of four popular music research conferences, all hosted here at the University of Huddersfield. These are:

My own solo presentation is about sample detection in methods for plagiarism copyright disputes – more to follow on this when I get it written up, or failing that an abstract and some links. [Read more…]

Resilience through Trauma-informed Care

Supporting Resilience through Trauma-informed Care

Dr Nomi Levy-Carrick, Psychiatrist, Division of Medical Psychiatry, Brigham and Women’s Hospital

Dr Levy-Carrick opens with some definitions of psychiatric trauma, providing categories/examples. The macro statistic (from one very large mental health study) is that 63% of people have experienced trauma of some sort. There is a discussion of affluence/resource, and the relationship between early trauma and later negative life events or conditions. Those who have experienced trauma have much higher incidence of behavioral health issues later in life – smoking, diabetes, depression etc.

Trauma can be individual, interpersonal, or collective, as can music.

Allostasis – the body’s ability to return to a neutral state (after stress). Citation: McEwen, 2017. Trauma negatively affects allostasis. [Read more…]

Music Therapy for Infants…

Music Therapy for Infants with Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome

Jasmine Edwards, Louis Armstrong Center for Music and Medicine, Mount Sinai Hospitals

Susan Bakouros, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, PeaceHealth Southwest Medical Center

Susan opens with a description of the issues the US is currently facing with babies who are born with opioid addiction, including those born to mothers who were receiving methadone treatment during pregnancy. She describes her own experience of comforting newborns using non-pharmacological intervention therapies.

Susan Bakouros demonstrates “Ocean Disc”, a percussion instrument that acoustically simulates the sound of the womb

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Treatment and Creativity #musictherapy

Woody Giessmann (LADC-1) Right Turn: A Creative Place for Recovery

After a brief (and fascinating) biography, Woody shares a list of possible music-related therapies and treatments, and provides his macro hypothesis:

The self-medication hypothesis that Woody Giessmann is discussing today

More about Right Turn, an addiction treatment center that uses arts therapies. [JB comment – note that this is an example of a non-profit organization that attracts real health insurance dollars, and designs and evaluates its treatments based on clinical evidence and data. This is a model of funded mental health/addiction therapy that we don’t see in the UK in quite the same way, and indeed may only be possible because of the way US health insurance works – there is a particular cost incentive to investing in preventative treatments of this type]. [Read more…]